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Biological Sciences Thesis & Dissertation Archive

2029-2020   |   2019-2010   2009-2000  1999-1990  1989-1980  1979-1970   1969-1965

ISU Panorama. Photo by Chuck Peterson.

The Department of Biological Sciences at Idaho State University is committed to communicating the relevance of our research to the public, research sponsors and collaborators, and commercial partners. This archive includes the novel research produced by our students as they pursued their graduate education and includes Master Theses and Doctoral Dissertations. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by the authors. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

2019-2010: 143 with 26 Ph.D., 8 D.A., and 109 M.S.

2019  2018    2017    2016   |   2015 |   2014    2013   |  2012  |  2011  |  2010

AuthorTitleDegreeElectronic Submission OR Call Number
Bayless-Edwards, Aurora Vegetation community classification, mapping, and modeling on the Snake River Plain M.S., Biology  Y2019.B801
Bayless-Edwards, Landon From Molecule to Cell: Using Electrophysiology and Multi-Scale Modelling to Understand how NAv1.4 Controls Electrical Excitability  M.S., Biology  Y2019.B738
Camp, Ryann Utilizing metal bridge formation to investigate Domain I residue interaction during activation and inactivation in voltage-gated sodium channel,hNav1.4. M.S., Biology Y2019.C795
Eckersell, Adam An Investigation of Relational Values in River Social-Ecological Systems  M.S., Biology  Y2019.E786
Feldman, Cody Predicting the distribution of Yellowstone cutthroat trout based on a spatial stream network of the Snake River watershed M.S., Biology Y2019.F818
Glossner, Kayla Transport and Fluxes of Suspended Sediment and Carbon Across Multiple Spatio-Temporal Scales in a Semi-Arid Region  M.S., Biology  Y2019.G
Harris, Becca Neuroanatomy of Individual Finger Control in the American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus M.S., Biology  Y2019.H1838
Lubenow, Dayne Dissociation between forest productivity and snowpack: a 25-year investigation into the Intermountain West M.S., Biology Y2019.L778
Mathews, Steven Ecology of Reintroduced Columbian Sharptailed Grouse to Northern Nevada and Implications for Restoring Lekking Grouse via Translocation Ph.D. Biology Y2019.M
Millard, Alyssa Assessing stream restoration: ecosystem function and stakeholders' perspectives M.S., Biology Y2019.M774
Newton, Freya Phylogenetic Diversity and Abundance in Bacterial Communities in Antarctic Meltwater Ponds  M.S., Biology  Y2019.N769
Nicolae, Verona Assessing social behavior of juvenile zebrafish after chronic exposure to psychiatric drugs carbamazepine (CBZ) and flouxetine (FLX)  M.S., Biology  Y2019.N768
Pavlick, Kayla Training American Cockroaches to Locate Narcatics M.S., Biology Y2019.P766
Roberts, Katherine Investigating Local Plant Food Systems Through Stable Isotope Analyses   M.S., Biology Y2019.R760
Shrum, Celena The Relationship Between Halotolerance and Ionizing Radioation Resistance of Antarctic Bacteria M.S., Microbiology Y2019.S750
Zorio, Stephanie Integrated Ecology: From classroom to alpine summit  D.A., Biology Y2019.Z
Adams, McKenna Emergence Phenology of the Giant Salmonfly and Responses by Bird in Idaho River Networks  M.S., Biology  Y2018.A805
Augustine, Steven Programmed to grow, not to survive: a tale of carbon safety margins and hydraulic demise in 1st-year seedlings  M.S., Biology Y2018.A600
Braun, Janet Comparison of Bacterial Phylogenetic Diversity in Rat Fecal Pellets and Cecum & Probiotic and Antioxidant Treatment Effects on Bacterial Community Composition M.S., Microbiology Y2018.B603
Bush, David Incubation Behavior and Genetic Attributes of Trumpeter Swans Restored to Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge  M.S., Biology Y2018.B717
Esterbrook, Arin Isolation and Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage from Bovine Feces Effective Against Salmonella enterica M.S., Microbiology Y2018.E612
Gibson, Dainee Characterizing and prioritizing land trust conservation easements through a social-ecological systems framework M.S., Biology Y2018.G615
Hodonu, Ayokunle Novel Interactions between Estradiol, Progesterone and Insulin Regulate Uterine Glycogen Metabolism in the American Mink (Neovison vison) D.A., Biology Y2018.H618
Macek, Carolyn
Dynamics and Disconnects: Macronutrient Cycling in Ephemeral Constructed Stormwater Wetlands and National Patterns in Stormwater Management M.S., Biology Y2018.M683
Sharma, Harmandeep Variation of carbon and water fluxes in sagebrush communities that constitute the vast, but not homogeneous sagebrush landscapes: Evidence from leaf to ecosystem scales. Ph.D., Biology Y2019.S751
Shrestha, Kshitij  Investigating knockdown reisitance mutations in Ochlerotatus flavescens and Aedes vexans mosquitos in Bannock County, Idaho  M.S., Biology Y2018.S734 
Stalder, Sarah A murky problem, a clear opportunity: Reach-scale metabolism reveals longitudinal heterogeneity in a semi-arid agriculture stream in SE Idaho  M.S., Biology Y2018.S696
Behn, Kathrine E.
The Trophic Ecology of a Desert River Fish Assemblage: Influence of Season and Hydrologic Variability M.S., Biology Y2017.B506
Chong, Cordelia Evidence-based Design and Development of Interactive Learning Units: A Museum Case Study D.A., Biology Y2017.C482 
Condo, Theresa What causes lower treeline? Hydraulic strategies of Douglas-fir along an elevation gradient M.S., Biology Y2017.C565
Dudko, Jonathan E. Incubation Recess Behavior and Nest Site Selection of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Great Basin M.S., Biology Y2017.H513
Eaton, Kendra Connections or Containers: Using Genetic Data to Understand How Watershed Evolution and Human Activities May Influence Cutthroat Trout Biogeography M.S., Biology Y2017.E484
Finkbeiner, Marie Mechanistic Insight into Taurine’s Role in Reducing Nonenzymatic Glycation  B.S./M.S., Biology Y2017.F515 
Hammon, Jordan Antibody and Antigen Detection in Blastomyces dermatitidis M.S., Microbiology Y2017.H517 
Huber, David Precipitation Timing and Soil Control Volumes Regulate Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Cold Desert Ecosystems Ph.D., Biology Y2017.H490
Johnson, Anders Proteogenomic Studies on Extracellular Electron Transport in the Iron-Respiring Thermophilic Bacterium, Thermus sp. AO3C   M.S., Biology Y2017.J503
Li, Jing Jing Effects of Mutations in the C-Loop Of α3β2- Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor on Ligand Binding  M.S., Biology Y2017.L581
O’Hearn, Pamela P. Bilateral Asymmetry in Avian Testicular Morphology and Function Ph.D., Biology Y2017.O535
Robson, Kelsey An Evaluation of Digital Storytelling as a Novel Approach to Science Communication and Education D.A., Biology Y2017.R498
Schenk,  Matthew V. Of Fire, Food, and Fish: Fish Productivity Responses to Wildfire M.S., Biology Y2017.S540
Wiscaver, Pamela Characterization of Lytic Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Bacteriophage Isolated from Bovine Feces  M.S., Microbiology  Y2017.W592
Bowman, Kole Justin The Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Uterine Glycogen Metabolism in the American Mink (Neovison Vison) M.S., Biology Y2016.B341
Gilmer, John Insight into the Effects of Mesothelial Cell Autoantibodies M.S., Biology Y2016.G391
Goodnoe, Taylor Tamiko  Facultative Environmental Sex Determinations in Ceratopteris richardii Gametophytes: Characterization and Implications for Plasticity of Resource Allocation M.S., Biology Y2016.G388
Haldorson, Michael T.  Possible Roles of Cysteine Residues in the Structure and Function of Exoenzyme Y from Pseudomonas aeruginosa M.S., Biology Y2016.H392
Hanson, Robert The Cell Regulatory Systems Affected by Asbestos Induced Mesothelial Cell Autoantibodies M.S., Biology Y2016.H342
Harnsberger, Aaron Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis of Developing Carollia perspicillata and Interdigital Expression of "Cyp26b1", a Potential Digit Patterning Gene M.S., Biology Y2016.H431
Hill, Roy Insular Biogeography and Population Genetics of Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) M.S., Biology Y2016.H389
Latta, Alicia M.  The Genetics of Metamorphosis: Expression Profile Across Three Life Stages in Lithobates catesbeianus Shows the Enrichment of 29 Gene Sets Using Rotational Gene Set Testing M.S., Biology Y2016.L390
Long, Roger Nitrogen Dynamics in the Sagebrush Steppe: Anthropogenic Fluxes Affect Shrub-Steppe Plant Communities M.S., Biology Y2016.L427
Pacioretty, Maria T.  Living in ihe Phantom Gas Field: Physiological Responses of Artemisia tridentata to Experimental-Noise-Induced Changes in Arthropod Herbivory M.S., Biology Y2016.P457
Schwabedissen, Stacy Gayle  Nitrogen Fixation by Biological Soil Crusts and Their Communities: Climatic and Grazing Controls M.S., Biology Y2016.S393
Striluk, Miranda L.  Terrestrial Biome and Seasonal Effects on the Abundance of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in the Lower Atmosphere M.S., Biology Y2016.S394
Thalmann, Johanna Claire  Analysis of Sexual Segregation in Bison and the Productivity of Vegetation on Antelope Island State Park M.S., Biology Y2016.T432
Christensen, Leasha M.  Bacterial Population Differences in Mus musculus Cecum in Response to Probiotic Administration M.S., Biology Y2015.C249
Chung, Cheng-Han  Genome Characterization of Novel Bacillus Cereus-Group Infecting Bacteriophages M.S., Biology Y2015.C304
Curran, Lindsay M.  Physiological and Structural Responses of Low Sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) to Warming and Snowpack Removal in a Montane Meadow M.S., Biology Y2015.C240
Heinrich, Kaleb K. Multiple Stressors and Multiple Invaders in Linked Stream-Riparian Ecosystems: Combined Research and Pedagogy Contributions D.A., Biology  Y2015.H296
Kaushik, Gaurav  The Potential Association of Psychoactive Pharmaceuticals at Low Concentrations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Ph.D., Biology Y2015.K222
Lee, Brady D. Network Interaction in the Thermoacidophile Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius in Response to Different Complex Carbon Sources Ph.D., Biology Y2015.L290
Mayo, Jamie Nadine  Stimulating a Microvascular Cell for Cell Therapy Applications: Pericyte Potential for Manipulating Central Nervous System Vasculature Ph.D., Biology  Y2015.M334
McAbee, Kathryn  How Do Long-Term Changes in Precipitation Seasonality Affect Dryland Carbon Dynamics? Evidence From a 21-Year Manipulative Climate-Change Experiment M.S., Biology Y2015.M241
Rasmussen, Ashelee  A Digital Flora of Southeastern Idaho M.S., Biology Y2015.R242
Thibeault, Cassie L. Investigating the Involvement of Eukaryotic Host Factors in the Translocation of the Tetanus Toxin M.S., Biology Y2015.T250
Von Moler, Ehren Reid Fungal Ecology of Whitebark Pine Phyllospheres in the Southern Cascades M.S., Biology Y2015.M305
Wright, Joshua  Isolation and Characterization of Immunoreactive Components of Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Lysate Antigens M.S., Biology Y2015.W311
Zorio, Stephanie D.  Analysis of Temporal Change in High-Elevation Plant Community Composition, East River Basin, Colorado, USA M.S., Biology Y2015.Z243
Astle, Joshua Tol The Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP 1B1 Enzyme Activity in Immortalized Mink Uterine Epithelial Cells M.S., Biology Y2014.A163
Collins, Scott F.  The ecological importance of subsidies from salmon to stream-riparian ecosystems: An experimental test and implications for approaches to nutrient mitigation Ph.D., Biology Y2014.C207
Davis, Katrina Cassidy  Static Weight Distribution on Dry Land and Gait Characteristics and Heart Rate Response of Healthy Dogs During Partial-Water Immersion on a Treadmill M.S., Biology Y2014.D169
Dean, Matthew  Uterine Glycogen during Pregnancy in Mink (Neovison vison): Mediating the Effects of Estradiol Ph.D., Biology Y2014.D185
Hofstetter, Katrina S.  Fibroblast Growth Factor Diversity in the Developing Bat Limb M.S., Biology Y2014.H170
Madrid, Michael V.  Characterization of the Novel Bacterial Adenylyl Cyclase Effector, Exoy M.S., Microbiology Y2014.M192
Matsaw, Sammy Barriers to Movement and Habitat Availability Influence Genetic Variation in Populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout M.S., Biology >Y2014.M205
Villepique, Jeffrey Todd Environmental Variation, not Risk of Predation, Drives the Spatial Ecology of Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Ph.D., Biology  Y2014.V157
Allison, Tiffany Rose Blastomyces dermatitidis: immunodiagnosis, antigen stability and In silico modeling for drug discover M.S., Microbiology Y2013.A44
Blackadar, Ryan J. Winter ecology of a wilderness river: effects of ice disturbance and subsidies of ungulate carcasses on aquatic food webs M.S., Biology Y2013.B43
Carroll, Andrew Anatomical descriptions of developing hypoglossal motoneurons in Rana clamitans and Rana catesbeiana through metamorphosis and the kinematics of prey capture in newly metamorphosed Rana catesbeiana M.S., Biology Y2013.C37
Chen, Cheng-Hung Homosystene- and connexin43- regulated mechanisms for entothelial wound healing Ph.D., Biology YB2013.C54
Collingwood, Amanda M. Inhibition of growth of Phytophthora erythroseptica by extracellular compunds produced by gamma proteobacteria M.S., Biology Y2013.C63
Cornell, Jennifer J. Investigation of the effects of recreational land use on the stream ecosystem of an urban-fringe watershed M.S., Biology Y2013.C67
Ford, Matthew W. Investigations in microbial stress tolerance: a multi-system approach M.S., Microbiology Y2013.F67
Guernsey, Noelle Choahnna Rates of decomposition and nutrient release of moose inputs are driven by habitat microsite characteristics. M.S., Biology Y2013.G84
Harris, Hannah E. Disturbance cascade: how fire and debris flows affect headwater linkages to downstream and riparian ecosystems M.S., Biology Y2013.H37
Li, Zhen. Exploring shiga toxin's vector and its function in Escherichia coli and protozoan predator populations Ph.D., Biology YB2013.L50
Long, Ryan Andrew Linking climatic bariability to behavior and fitness of herbivores: a bioenergetic approach Ph.D., Biology YB2013.L65
Mayo, Jamie Nadine Homocysteine's affect on microvasculature via inducible nitric oxide synthase M.S., Biology Y2013.M39
O'Neill, Becky Characterization of the Stochastic Relationship of Poecilochirus (Mites) to Nicrophorus (Beetles) Using Stable Isotope Analysis M.S., Biology Y2013.O115
Roberts, Jessica Optimization of the alpha 3 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression system M.S., Biology Y2013.R61
Serve, Kinta M. Mesothelial cell autoantibodies induce collagen deposition In Vitro & using a case study to introduce undergraduates to bioinformatics D.A., Biology YB2013.S47
Zebedeo, Christian Nash Mineral fiber immunotoxicology: induction of autoimmunity by erionite M.S., Biology Y2013.Z42
Blakney, Jason R. Historical connectivity and contemporary isolation : population genetic structure or a rare high-desert minnow, the Northern Leatherside Chub (Lepidomeda copei) M.S., Biology  Y2012.B46
Bonn, Kenneth. Resistance of the novel halovirus GSL1 to extreme conditions M.S., Biology  Y2012.B65
Campbell, Steven O. Jr. Bioenergetic estimate of habitat quality for salmonids in streams enriched with a salmon carcass analog M.S., Biology  Y2012.C34
Cherry, Merrit. Radiation resistance and phylogenetic analysis of extremophilic organisms isolated form antarctic hypersaline pond mat smples M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.C455
Emfield, Gregory Scott Morphometric and molecular analysis of limb development in bats M.S., Biology  Y2012.E44
Gygli, Patrick E. Role of replication protein a in the radiation-resistance of Halobacterium salinarum SSp. NRC-1 Ph.D., Microbiology  YB2012.G95
Hallock, Peter B. Network-based investigation of the genetic and cellular mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease Ph.D., Biology  YB2012.H34
Hatch, Wayne O. Development of a slide agglutination assay for the detection of blastomycosis teaching bioinformatics using an online case study D.A., Biology  YB2012.H37
Howe, Kristy B. Selection for anthropogenic structures and vegetation characteristics by common ravens (Corvus corax) within a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem M.S., Biology  Y2012.H69
Hunt, Jason Lynn Effects of estradol and catecholestrogens on uterine glycogen metabolism in the mink (Neovison vison) Ph.D., Biology  YB2012.H84
Lendrum, Patrick Earl Migration patterns of adult female mule deer in response to natural-gas extraction M.S., Biology  Y2012.L45
Lockhart, J. Scott Impact of single-stranded DNA-binding protein gene expression on microbial radiation tolerance M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.L62
Lockyer, Zachary B. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest predators, nest survivial, and nesting habitat at multiple spatial scales M.S., Biology  Y2012.L63
Marcum, Ryan D. Expression and function of glutamate receptors on B1a B cells and their role in autoimmunity M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.M37
McCaskill, Julienne S. Investigating the role of one replication protein A homolog in Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.M44
Morris, Benjamin M. Phenotypic variance in deinococcus radiodurans R1: a model for persistence M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.M67
Santin, Angela Elizabeth Characterization, quantification, and dietary effects on long-term biomarkers of glycemia in rainbow trout and other fish species M.S., Biology  Y2012.S26
Searle, Amanda J. Blastomyces dermatitidis: chitinase homology modeling, inhibition, and anitgen detection for diagnosis M.S., Microbiology  Y2012.S42
Shumway, Matt Directed evolution of a family 42 beta galactosidase M.S., Biology  Y2012.S51
Takahasi, Masaru Dynamics of the interactions between big sagebrush (Artemisa tridentata l.) and its associated arthropods in southeastern Idaho: food webs and effects of herbivory in a changing climate Ph.D., Biology  YB2012.T35
Thiel, Jessie Rose Forage selection by maternal mule deer: body condition of maternal females, and birth characteristics and survival of neonates M.S., Biology  Y2012.T54
Wagley, Prajwal Investigation of charged residues in the cytoplasmic linker between domains III and IV of a voltage gated sodium channel as a voltage sensor. M.S., Biology  Y2012.W35
Beard, Richard Scott, Jr. Mechanisms for homocysteine-mediated cerebral endothelial damage Ph.D., Biology YB2011.B41
Bellmore, James Ryan Ecological importance of floodplains in montane river networks: implications for habitat restoration and salmon recovery Ph.D., Biology YB2011.B44
Billman, Hilary Gray Investigating effects of the piscicide rotenone on amphibians in southwestern Montana through laboratory experiments and field trials M.S., Biology Y2011.B54
Donner, Kevin Christopher Secondary production rates, consumption rates, and trophic basis of production of fishes in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ: an assessment of potential competition for food M.S., Biology  Y2011.D65
Fisher, Amanda E. Phylogenetic studies of plastid evolution in the neotropical woody bamboo genus Chusquea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) Ph.D., Biology  YB2011.F58
Hall, Carrie L. Burying beetle bioacoustics: the role of sound in intra- and interspecific communication in Nicrophorus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) Ph.D., Biology YB2011.H34
Hayden, James J. Comparative antibody detection studies using isoelectrically focused protein fractions from Blastomyces dermatitidis M.S., Biology  Y2011.H39
Monteith, Kevin Lee Life-history characteristics of mule deer: the pervasive effects of nutrition on survival, reproduction, and behavior in a variable environment Ph.D., Biology  YB2011.M65
Park, Shawna T. Characterization of the bacterial microflora on the skin of boreal toads and Columbia spotted frogs in the Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming USA M.S., Microbiology  Y2011.P37
Pennell, Ellen S. Parental investment in burying beetles (Nicrophorus investigator) : influence of seasonal timing and prior experience ; Efficacy of minimally guided instructional strategies in K-12 and undergraduate science classrooms : a meta-analysis / D.A., Biology YB2011.P45
Shrestha, Nisha Effect of farnesol on abscisic acid signaling and flower development in Arabidopsis M.S., Biology  Y2011.S57
Yang, Luobin High performance and high throughput bioinformatics: accelerate time-consuming bioinformatics applications and extract knowledge from large amount of biological data Ph.D., Biology  YB2011.Y25
Zelent, Caroline M. Comparative immunological analysis of antigenic preparations of Blastomyces dermatitidis M.S., Microbiology  Y2011.Z44
Adomako, Marie Efficacy of oral DNA vaccine delivery systems for protection of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus infection M.S., Microbiology  Y2010.A36
Albano, Heidi Relationship of bromus tectorum to the plant community and soil nutrient cycling at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho M.S., Biology  Y2010.A42
Anderson, Eric Dwaine Winter habitat selection by female mule deer: do changes in habitat spatially and temporally affect selection? M.S., Biology Y2010.A54
Andrews, Michelle Biochemical characterization of protein prenyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana: a straightforward explanation of mutant phenotypes M.S., Biology Y2010.A56
Bauder, Javan M. Movements and habitat selection of prairie rattlesnakes (crotalus v. viridis) across a mountainous landscape in a designated wilderness arear. M.S., Biology  Y2010.B38
Bechtold, Heather A. Investigation of the response of carbon and nutrient dynamics to human land use in the Portneuf River Watershed Ph.D., Biology YB2010.B42
Benjamin, Joseph R. Replacement of a native salmonid by a nonnative salmonid in the western United States: changes in trout production and consequences for stream-riparian food webs Ph.D., Biology  YB2010.B45
Bhandari, Jayaram Farnesol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana: characterization, regulation, and involvement in abscisic acid signaling M.S., Biology  Y2010.B52
Buffington, Kevin John Predicting climate-induced shifts in burying beetle distributions: integrating niche partitioning, competition, and thermal performance M.S., Biology  Y2010.B85
Ellis, Joshua T. Isolation and characterization of novel and physiologically distinct biomass converting microorganisms M.S., Biology  Y2010.E44
Hansen, Shannalee Christman Group II introns: utility as phylogenetic estimators in bamboos M.S., Biology Y2010.H33
Hoover, Amber Relationships between soil heterogeneity and vegetation recovery in sagebrush steppe following wildfire and wind erosion M.S., Biology  Y2010.H66
Leatham, Bryan Halophilic adaptations demonstrated through the characterization of an unusual tRNA synthetase and salt effects on radiation resistance M.S., Microbiology  Y2010.L43
Mineau, Madeleine Effects of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) invasion on stream nitrogen cycling, organic matter dynamics, and food webs Ph.D., Biology YB2010.M55
Patterson, Ryan N. Characterization of a halovirus from the Great Salt Lake M.S., Biology 2010. Y2010.P391
Puljan, Daniel Charles Role of the M. submentalis in the feeding biomechanics of the marine toad, Bufo marinus M.S., Biology 2010. Y2010.P84
Rasmussen, Devon L. Asbestos and autoimmunity: cross-talk between macrophages and B1a B lymphocytes M.S., Microbiology Y2010.R38
Sigurani, Avin Seventh sense: sensorimotor patterns in brain stem reticular formation and nuclei of the frog, Rana pipiens M.S., Biology Y2010.S53