Medicine, Dentistry, Podiatry, Optometry, Chiropracty, Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, Physician Assistant and Physical Therapy
|AREA OF SPECIALIZATION||EMPLOYERS||EDUCATION INFO|
Family and General Practice
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Private or group practice
Mental Health Institutions
Federal, State, & Local Health Depts
College or Universities
|Schooling Required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Medicine (MD) requires 4 years of medical school, followed by 3-8 years of internship and residency depending on specialization chosen.
Some physicians pursue the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. DO's emphasize the body's musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic patient care and often work in family and general practices, although they may be found in many specialties.
Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology
Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
|Private Practice (80% of dentists)
Federal, State, and Local Health Depts.
|Test Required: MCAT
Test Required: DAT
School required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) requires 4 years of dental school (the last 2 years are clinical rotations)
Diabetic Foot Care
Community Health Clinics
Residential and Nursing Homes
National Health Service
Some specialty retail chains
|Test Required: MCAT or GRE
Schooling Required: After earning at least 90 hours of undergraduate course work, the Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) requires 4 academic years (last 2 years are clinical rotations). One year of post-doctoral residency is required in most states.
Hospital Based Optometry
Primary Care Optometry
Vision care centers
|Test Required: OAT
Schooling Required: After earning the undergraduate degree the Doctor of Optometry (OD) requires 4 academic years at an Optometry school.
|Solo and Group Practices
Hospitals or health clinics
|TEST Required: GRE or MCAT
Schooling Required: After earning at least 90 hours of undergraduate course work, the Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) requires 4 academic years of a chiropractic school.
Intravenous Nutrition Support
Mental Health Institutions
Government agencies including:
Food and Drug Administration
Public Health Service
Dept. of Veteran's Affairs
Health Insurance firms
|Test Required: PCAT
Schooling Required: After spending 2 to 3 years in undergraduate coursework, the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D) requires 4 academic years.
|Small Animal Care
Large Animal Care
Laboratory Animal Medicine
|Group or private practice
Federal Government including:
Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. of Health & Human Services
State and Local government
Colleges of Veterinary Medicine
Animal food companies
|Test Required: GRE, VCAT, or MCAT
Schooling Required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM or VMD) requires 4 academic years at a college of Veterinarian medicine. Veterinarians who plan to specialize will spend additional years in internship or residency programs.
Internal Medicine/physical exams
Pre and post-operative care
Diagnosing and treating illness
|Test Required: GRE
Schooling: 2 years college in basic and behavioral sciences Most students have bachelors 3 years health care experience PA Programs are 27 months and include classroom & clinical rotations
Dept. of Defense
Out Patient Clinics
Home Health Agencies
Sports & Fitness Facilities
Industrial Work settings
Skilled Nursing Homes
In Patient Rehab
Bachelor's Degree GPA 3.0 in last 560 hours Must have graduate degree and take national licensure exam
STRATEGIES FOR GAINING ADMITTANCE INTO PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS:
- Choose an appropriate undergraduate major and include prerequisite courses required by the professional program, e.g. biology, chemistry, and physics, if they are not a requirement of the chosen major.
- Meet with a pre-health advisor periodically to discuss curricular decisions.
- Maintain a high grade point average, particularly in the sciences, to improve chances of admission to graduate or professional school
- Develop strong computer, mathematics, and verbal and written communication skills.
- Build strong relationships with professors and/or employers in order to secure strong recommendations.
- Join related student organizations, such as Alpha Epsilon Delta, and assume leadership roles.
- Obtain summer jobs, volunteer positions, or internships to test field of interest and gain valuable experience.
- Develop a backup plan in case medical/graduate school admission is denied.
- Look at entrance requirements for desired institutions. Be aware of any standardized test requirements, minimum grade point averages, and prerequisites.
- Talk to professionals already in your desired field regarding their backgrounds, arrange a shadowing experience. Join professional associations and community organizations to stay abreast of current issues in the field and to develop networking contacts.
- Read scientific journals related to your area of interest.
- Research accredited institutions. Check graduation rates, success rates on licensing exams, cost location, etc. If possible, speak with current students.
- Develop a desire to help people of all backgrounds and ages including various races and socioeconomic groups.
- Gain an understanding of the rigorous education and training required in the medical professions to ascertain your willingness to complete the required experiences.
- Study the demands required of each of the medical fields. Many physicians work many long irregular hours. Consider your tolerance of such a schedule.
- All fields require licensure that is generally regulated by the state of residency.
- Plan for a lifetime of learning to stay abreast of new trends in the field to fulfill continuing educational requirements for licensure.
- In some medical fields additional training is necessary for advanced research and administrative positions, university teaching and independent research.
- Some medical fields offer the opportunity for post-doctoral experiences which can allow one to gain additional training or specialize in a particular area.