About GIS and Geotechnologies
GIS stands for Geographic Information System: an automated system for creating, editing, analyzing and displaying spatially referenced data. A GIS has the ability to manipulate different spatial datasets simultaneously.
- What is GIS? | Geographic Information System Mapping Technology
- What is GIS - GIS Lounge
- USGS - Geographic Information Systems
According to Goodchild (1992), geographic information science or GIScience, is basically the “the science behind the systems.” The study of “the theory and concepts that lie behind GIS and the other geographic information technologies” and “considers fundamental questions raised by the use of (these) systems and technologies.” What computational techniques are used to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information. GIScience includes the existing technologies and research areas of geographic information systems (GIS), cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, visualization and surveying.
GPS stands for Global Positioning Systems: a satellite-based system for locating near-exact positions on the earth's surface. GPS applications fall into five broad categories:
- U.S. government information about the Global Positioning System (GPS)
- NASA Global Positioning System History
- General Information about GPS
Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation. Special cameras/sensors collect remotely sensed images/data from aircraft and/or satellites. The images/data and associated tools are used in studying land forms, land use, environmental pollution, and vegetation patterns.
- NOAA - What is remote sensing?
- NASA - Earthdata, Remote Sensors Overview
- The Guide to Earth Observation
Scientific visualization, sometimes referred to in shorthand as SciVis, is the representation of data graphically as a means of gaining understanding and insight into the data in ways previously impossible. It is sometimes referred to as visual data analysis. Methods are developed to enable manipulation of data presented in graphical format to enhance readability, or to reveal or demonstrate unsuspected patterns, regularities or connections.