Stream Ecology Center Publications
Below is a list of publications associated with the Stream Ecology Center since 2004 (for publications prior to 2004, please see link to full list on Dr. Minshall's page). If you would like a reprint, pdf or more information on a specific publication, please contact us.
Scholl, E.A., W.F. Cross, C.V. Baxter, and C.S. Guy. 2021. Uncovering process domains in large rivers: patterns and potential drivers of benthic substrate heterogeneity in two North American riverscapes. Geomorphology. 375: 107524
Marcarelli, A.M., C.V. Baxter, J. Benjamin, Y. Miyake, M. Murakami, K. Fausch, and S. Nakano. 2020. Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale. Ecology 101(8): doi:10.1002/ecy.3064.
MacNeille, R. B., K.A. Lohse, S.E. Godsey, J.N. Perdrial, and C.V. Baxter. 2020. Influence of drying and wildfire on longitudinal chemistry patterns and processes of intermittent streams. Frontiers in Water 2(42).
Collins, S.F. and C.V. Baxter. 2020. Multiple lines of evidence reveal complex rainbow trout responses to stream habitat enhancements. Freshwater Biology 65:1962–1972.
Walters, D.M., W.F. Cross, T.A. Kennedy, C.V. Baxter, R.O. Hall, Jr., and E.J. Rosi. 2020. Food web controls on mercury fluxes and fate in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. Science Advances 6(20): eaaz4880.
Blackadar, R.J., C.V. Baxter, J.M. Davis, and H. Harris. 2020. River ice disturbance: effects on organic matter and feeding ecology of aquatic insects. River Research and Applications 36:480-491.
Macek, C.L., R.L. Hale, and C.V. Baxter. 2020. Dry wetlands: Nutrient dynamics in ephemeral constructed stormwater wetlands. Environmental Management 65:32-45.
Collins, S. F. and C.V. Baxter. 2020. Beyond “donors and recipients”: Impacts of species gains and losses reverberate among ecosystems due to changes in resource subsidies. Pp. 157-176 in Johanna M. Kraus, David M. Walters and Marc A. Mills (Eds.), Contaminants and Ecological Subsidies: Applying Spatial Food Web Ecology at the Land-Water Interface. Springer.
Collins, S.F., C.V. Baxter, *A.M. Marcarelli, M.S. Wipfli, S. Florin, L. Felicetti, and G. Servheen. 2019. Reverberating effects of resource subsidies in stream-riparian food webs. Oecologia 192:179-189.
Tiegs, S.D., D.M. Costello, M.W. Isken, G. Woodward, P.B. McIntyre, M.O. Gessner, E. Chauvet, N.A. Griffiths, A.S. Flecker, V. Acuña, R. Albariño, D.C. Allen, C. Alonso, P. Andino, C. Arango, J. Aroviita, M.V.M. Barbosa, L.A. Barmuta, C.V. Baxter, et al. (total 153 authors from 40 countries). 2019. Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones. Science Advances 5(1): eaav0486.
Behn, K.E. and C.V. Baxter. 2019. The trophic ecology of a desert river fish assemblage: influence of season and hydrologic variability. Ecosphere 10(1).
Huang, L., F. H. Liao, K. Lohse, D. Larson, M. Fragkias, D. Lybecker, C.V. Baxter. 2019. Land conservation can mitigate freshwater ecosystem services degradation due to climate change in a semiarid catchment: The case of the Portneuf River catchment, Idaho, USA. Science of the Total Environment 651:1796-1809.
Harris, H., C.V. Baxter, and J.M. Davis. 2018. Wildfire and debris flows affect prey subsidies with implications for riparian and riverine predators. Aquatic Sciences 80(4):37.
Eberhard, E.K., A.M. Marcarelli, and C.V. Baxter. 2018. Co-occurrence of in-stream nitrogen fixation and denitrification across a nitrogen gradient in a western watershed. Biogeochemistry 139:179-195.
Quintas-Soriano, C., J. Brandt, K. Running, C. V. Baxter, D. M. Gibson, J. Narducci, and A. J. Castro. 2018. Social-ecological systems influence ecosystem service perception: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) analysis. Ecology and Society 23(3):3.
Castro, A.J., C. Quintas-Soriano, J. Brandt, C. Atkinson, C.V. Baxter, M. Burnham, B. Egoh, M. Garcia-Llorente, J. Julian, B. Martin-Lopez, F.H. Liao, K. Running, C. Vaughn, and A. Norström. 2018. Applying place-based social-ecological research to address water scarcity: Insights for future research. Sustainability 10:1516.
Ward, P.R., P.J. Anders, G.W. Minshall, C. Holderman, G.M. Hoyle, and H. Yassien. 2018. Nutrient uptake during low-level fertilization of a large, seventh-order oligotrophic river. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 75(4): 569-579.
Baxter, C.V. T.A. Kennedy, S.W. Miller, J.D. Muehlbauer, and L.A. Smock. 2017. Macroinvertebrate drift, adult insect emergence and oviposition. pp. 435-456 In F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti, editors. Methods in stream ecology. Academic Press, San Diego. 3rd Edition.
Shafii, B., W.J. Price, C. Holderman, G.W. Minshall, and P. Anders. 2017. Characterizing the Kootenai River macroinvertebrate community structure using nonnegative matrix factorization. International Journal of Applied and Experimental Mathematics 2: 120-125.
Heinrich, K.K., K. Robson, and C.V. Baxter. 2016. Investigating aquatic insect emergence: A demonstration of the 5E learning cycle. American Biology Teacher 79:225–232.
Kennedy, T.A., J.D. Muehlbauer, C.B. Yackulic, D.A. Lytle, S.W. Miller, K. L. Dibble, E.W. Kortenhoeven, A.N. Metcalfe and C.V. Baxter. 2016. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs. BioScience 66: 561-575.
Mejia, F.H., C.V. Baxter, E.K. Berntsen, and A.K. Fremier. 2016. Linking groundwater-surface water exchange to food production and salmonid growth. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73:1650–1660.
Rosi-Marshall, E.J., K. Vallis, C.V. Baxter and J.M. Davis. 2016. Retesting a prediction of the RCC: Autochthonous versus allochthonous resources in the diets of invertebrates from the Salmon River, ID in 1976 and 2009. Freshwater Science 35 (2) doi: 10.1086/686302.
Collins, S.F., C.V. Baxter, A.M. Marcarelli and M.S. Wipfli. 2016. Effects of experimentally added salmon subsidies on resident fishes via direct and indirect pathways. Ecosphere 7(3).
Harris, H.E., C.V. Baxter and J.M. Davis. 2015. Debris flows mediate effects of wildfire on magnitude and composition of tributary subsidies to main-stem habitats. Freshwater Science 34(4):1457–1467.
Verkaik, I., Vila-Escalé, M., Rieradevall, M., Baxter, C.V., Lake, P.S., Minshall, G.W., Reich, P., and Prat, N. 2015. Stream macroinvertebrate community responses to fire: are they the same in different fire-prone biogeographic regions? Freshwater Science 34(4):1527–1541.
Collins, S. F., A.M. Marcarelli, C.V. Baxter, and M.S. Wipfli. 2015. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients. Environmental Management 3:571-586.
Walters, D.M., E.J. Rosi-Marshall, T.A. Kennedy, W.F. Cross and C.V. Baxter. 2015. Mercury and selenium contamination in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 34(10):2385-2394.
Jackson, B.K., S.M.P. Sullivan, C.V. Baxter and R.L. Malison. 2015. Stream Riparian Ecosystems. Chapter 5 in The Ecological Importance of High-Severity Fire, D.A. DellaSala and C. Hanson, eds. Elsevier.
Bellmore, J. R., C.V. Baxter, and P.J. Connolly. 2015. Spatial complexity reduces interaction strengths in the meta-food web of a river floodplain mosaic. Ecology 96:274–283.
Hall, R. O. Jr., Yackulic, C. B., Kennedy, T. A., Yard, M. D., Rosi-Marshall, E. J., Voichick, N., & Behn, K. E. 2015. Turbidity, light, temperature, and hydropeaking control primary productivity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. Limnology and Oceanography 60(2):512-526. doi: 10.1002/lno.10031
Collins, S. F. and C.V. Baxter. 2014. Heterogeneity of riparian habitats mediates responses of terrestrial arthropods to a subsidy of Pacific salmon carcasses. Ecosphere 5(11):146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00030.1.
Minshall, G.W., B. Shafii, W.J. Price, C. Holderman, P.J. Anders, G. Lester and P. Barrett. 2014. Effects of nutrient replacement on benthic macroinvertebrates in an ultraoligotrophic reach of the Kootenai River, 2003–2010. Freshwater Science, 33(4), 1009-1023.
Zahn Seegert, S.E., E.J. Rosi-Marshall, C.V. Baxter, T.A. Kennedy, R.O. Hall, Jr., and W.F. Cross. 2014. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and non-native Fathead Minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143:1072-1083.
Marcarelli, A.M., C.V. Baxter and M.S. Wipfli. 2014. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics. Ecosphere 5(6):69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00366.1.
Bellmore, J. R. and C.V. Baxter. 2014. Effects of geomorphic process domains on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems: a comparison of floodplain and confined river segments. River Research and Applications. 30: 617–630.
Rugenski, A. T., and G.W. Minshall. 2014. Climate-moderated responses to wildfire by macroinvertebrates and basal food resources in montane wilderness streams. Ecosphere 5(3):25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00236.1
Muehlbauer, J.D., S.F. Collins, M.W. Doyle and K. Tockner. 2014. How wide is a stream? Spatial extent of the potential “stream signature” in terrestrial food webs using meta-analysis. Ecology 95:44–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1628.1
Benjamin, J.R., F. Lepori, C.V. Baxter, and K.D. Fausch. 2013. Can replacement of native by non-native trout alter stream-riparian food webs? Freshwater Biology 58:1694–1709 doi:10.1111/fwb.12160
Cross, W. F., C. V. Baxter, E. J. Rosi-Marshall, R. O. Hall, Jr., T. A. Kennedy, K. C. Donner, S.E.Z. Seegert, H. A. W. Kelly, M.D. Yard, and K.E. Behn. 2013. Foodweb dynamics in a large river discontinuum. Ecological Monographs 83:311-337.
Davis, J M., C.V. Baxter, B.T. Crosby, J.L. Pierce, E. J. Rosi-Marshall. 2013. Anticipating stream ecosystem responses to climate change: toward predictions that incorporate effects via land-water linkages. Ecosystems 16: 909–922. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-013-9653-4.
Bellmore, J. R., C.V. Baxter, P.J. Connolly, and K. Martens. 2013. The floodplain food web mosaic: a study of its importance to Pacific salmon and steelhead with implications for their restoration. Ecological Applications 23:189–207.
Wellard K.H.A., E.J. Rosi-Marshall, T.A. Kennedy, R.O. Hall, W.F. Cross, and C.V. Baxter. 2013. Macroinvertebrate diets reflect longitudinal and turbidity-driven changes in food availability in the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. Freshwater Science 32(2):397–410.
Davis, J M., C.V. Baxter, G.W. Minshall, N.F. Olson, C. Tang, and B.T. Crosby. 2013. Climate-induced shift in hydrologic regime alters basal resource dynamics in a wilderness river ecosystem. Freshwater Biology 58:306–319.
Bechtold, H. A., A.M. Marcarelli, C.V. Baxter, R.S. Inouye. 2012. Effects of N, P, and organic carbon on stream biofilm nutrient limitation and uptake in a semi-arid watershed. Limnology and Oceanography 57:1544-1554.
Jackson, B.K., S.M.P. Sullivan and R.L. Malison. 2012. Wildfire severity mediates fluxes of plant material and terrestrial invertebrates to mountain streams. Forest Ecology and Management 278:27-34.
Lepori, F., J.R. Benjamin, K.D. Fausch, and C.V. Baxter. 2012. Are invasive and native trout functionally-equivalent predators? Results and lessons from a field experiment. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22: 787–798.
Mineau, M.M., C.V. Baxter, A.M. Marcarelli, G.W. Minshall. 2012. An invasive riparian tree reduces stream ecosystem efficiency via a recalcitrant organic matter subsidy. Ecology 93:1501–1508.
Bellmore, J. R., C.V. Baxter, A. Ray, L. Denny, E. Galloway, K. Tardy. 2012. Assessing the potential for salmon recovery via floodplain restoration: A multitrophic level comparison of dredge-mined to reference segments. Environmental Management 49:734-750.
Benjamin, J.R. and C.V. Baxter. 2012. Is a trout a trout? A range-wide comparison shows nonnative brook trout exhibit greater density, biomass, and production than native inland cutthroat trout. Biological Invasions 14:1865–1879.
Relyea, C.D., G.W. Minshall, and R.J. Danehy. 2012. Development and validation of an aquatic fine sediment biotic index. Environmental Management 49: 242-252.
Fausch, K.D., C.E. Torgersen, C.V. Baxter, and H.W. Li. 2011. Landscapes to riverscapes-Bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes. In Topics in River Structure and Function - Articles reprinted from BioScience: Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, p. 7-22. Catalog No: 2851.
Benjamin, J.R. K.D. Fausch, and C.V. Baxter. 2011. Species replacement by a nonnative salmonid alters ecosystem function by reducing prey subsidies that support riparian spiders. Oecologia 167(2):503-12.
Marcarelli A.M., Baxter C.V., Mineau M.M., and Hall R.O. 2011. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters. Ecology 92: 1215-1225. DOI 10.1890/10-2240.1
Lance, M.J. and C.V. Baxter. 2011. Abundance, production, and tissue composition of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in a central Idaho wilderness stream. Northwest Science 85(3):445-454.
Torgersen, C.E., C.V. Baxter, J.L. Ebersole, and R.E. Gresswell. 2011. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmon-habitat relationships. Gravel-bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments, First Edition. Edited by Michael Church, Pascale M. Biron and Andre´ Roy.
Romme, W., M. Boyce, R. Gresswell, E. Merrill, G.W. Minshall, C. Whitlock, and M. Turner. 2011. Twenty years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires: lessons about disturbance and ecosystems. Ecosystems 14: 1196-1215.
Hopkins, J.M. and R.J. Smith. 2011. An inquiry-based field & laboratory investigation of leaf decay: a critical aquatic ecosystem function. American Biology Teacher 73(9):542-546.
Cross, W.F., C.V. Baxter, K.C. Donner, E.J. Rosi-Marshall, T.A. Kennedy, R.O. Hall, Jr., H.W. Kelly, and R.S. Rogers. 2011. Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon. Ecological Applications 21(6):2016–2033.
Mineau, M.M., C.V. Baxter, A.M. Marcarelli. 2011. A non-native riparian tree (Elaeagnus angustifolia) changes nutrient dynamics in streams. Ecosystems 14: 353-365.
Yard, M.D., L.G. Coggins, C.V. Baxter, G.E. Bennett, and J.T. Korman. 2011. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:471–486.
Hopkins JH, Marcarelli AM, and Bechtold HA. 2011. Ecosystem structure and function are complementary measures of water quality in a polluted, spring-influenced river. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 214: 409-421. DOI 10.1007/s11270-010-0432-y
Marcarelli, A.M., R.W. Van Kirk and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Predicting effects of hydrologic alteration and climate change on ecosystem metabolism in a western U.S. river. Ecological Applications 20(8):2081–2088.
Wipfli, M.S. and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: Subsidies in salmonid watersheds. Fisheries 35:373-387.
Fausch, K.D., C.V. Baxter, and M. Murakami. 2010. Multiple stressors in north temperate streams: lessons from linked forest-stream ecosystems in northern Japan. Freshwater Biology 55: 12-134.
Malison, R.L. and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Effects of wildfire of varying severity on benthic stream insect assemblages and emergence. Journal of North American Benthological Society 29: 647-656.
Malison, R.L., J. Benjamin, and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Measuring adult insect emergence from streams: the influence of trap placement and a comparison with benthic sampling. Journal of North American Benthological Society 29(2):647–656.
Malison, R.L. and C.V. Baxter. 2010. The “fire pulse:” wildfire stimulates flux of aquatic prey to terrestrial habitats driving increases in riparian consumers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(3):570-579.
Benjamin, J.R. and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Do nonnative salmonines exhibit greater density and production than the natives they replace? A comparison of nonnative brook trout to native cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139:641-651.
Rosi-Marshall, E.J., Kennedy, T.A., Kincaid, D.W., Cross, W.F., Kelly, H.A.W., Behn. K.A., White, T., Hall, R.O., Jr., and Baxter, C.V. 2010. Short-term effects of the 2008 high-flow experiment on macroinvertebrates in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1031, 28 p.[http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1031/].
Cross, W.F., E. Rosi-Marshall, K. Behn, T.A. Kennedy, R.O. Hall, A.E. Fuller, and C.V. Baxter. 2010. Invasion and production of New Zealand mud snails in the Colorado River, Glen Canyon. Biological Invasions 12:3033–3043.
Hall, R.O., T.A. Kennedy, E.J. Rosi-Marshall, W.F. Cross, H.A. Wellard, and C.V. Baxter. 2009. Aquatic production and carbon flow in the Colorado River. Aquatic production and carbon flow in the Colorado River. Proceedings of the Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium.
Marcarelli, A.M., H.A. Bechtold, A.T. Rugenski, and R.S. Inouye. 2009. Nutrient limitation of biofilm biomass and metabolism in the Upper Snake River basin, southeast Idaho, USA. Hydrobiologia 620: 63-76.
Monroe, J.B., C. V. Baxter, J.D. Olden, and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. Freshwaters in the public eye: understanding the role of images and media in aquatic conservation. Fisheries 34:581-585.
Flinders, C.A., G. W. Minshall, R.L Ragsdale, and T.J. Hall. 2009. Patterns of macroinvertebrate assemblages in a long-term watershed-scale study to address the effects of pulp and paper mill discharges in four US receiving streams. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 5:248–258.
Hall,T.J., R.P Fisher, J.H Rodgers Jr, G. W. Minshall, W.G. Landis, T.G Kovacs, B.K. Firth, M.G. Dube, T.L. Deardorff, and D.L. Borton. 2009. Long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: Background and status. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 5:189-198.
Hall,T.J., R.P Fisher, J.H Rodgers Jr, G. W. Minshall, W.G. Landis, T.G Kovacs, B.K. Firth, M.G. Dube, C.A. Flinders, T.L. Deardorff, and D.L. Borton. 2009. Long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: Lessons learned. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 5:283-290.
Dunham, J.B., C.V. Baxter, and 10 coauthors. 2008. Evolution, ecology and conservation of Dolly Varden, White-spotted char, and bull trout. Fisheries 33: 537-550.
Rugenski AT, Marcarelli AM, Bechtold HA, and Inouye RS. 2008. Effects of temperature and concentration on nutrient release rates from nutrient diffusing substrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27: 52-57. DOI 10.1899/07-046R1.1
Kohler, A.E., A.T. Rugenski, and D. Taki. 2008. Stream food web responses to a salmon carcass analog addition in two central Idaho, U.S.A. streams. Freshwater Biology 53:446-460.
Baxter, C.V., K.D. Fausch, M. Murakami and P.L. Chapman. 2007. Invading rainbow trout usurp a terrestrial prey subsidy from native charr and reduce their growth and abundance. Oecologia 153:461-470.
Dahm, C. N., H. M. Valett, C.V. Baxter, and W.W. Woessner. 2006. Hyporheic zones. pp. 119-142 In F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti, editors. Methods in stream ecology. Academic Press, San Diego. 2nd Edition.
Grimm, N.B., C.V. Baxter, C. L. Crenshaw. 2006. Surface-subsurface interactions in streams. pp. 1761-782 In F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti, editors. Methods in stream ecology. Academic Press, San Diego. 2nd Edition.
Minshall, G.W and A.T. Rugenski. 2006. Riparian processes and interactions. In Methods in Stream Ecology. Editors. R. Hauer and G. Lamberti.
Cushing, C.E., K. W. Cummins, and G. W. Minshall (eds). 2006. River and stream ecosystems of the world. University of California Press.
Torgersen, C.E., C.V. Baxter, H.W. Li, and B.A. McIntosh. 2006. Landscape influences on longitudinal patterns of stream fishes: spatially continuous analysis of fish-habitat relationships. In R. Hughes, L. Wang, and P. Seelbach, editors. Influences of landscapes on stream habitats and biological communities. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Baxter, C. V., K. D. Fausch, and W. C. Saunders. 2005. Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones. Freshwater Biology 50(2):201-220.
Laeser, S.R., C.V. Baxter and K.D. Fausch. 2005. Effects of stream channelization and riparian vegetation loss on web-weaving spiders in northern Japan. Ecological Research. 20:646-651.
Wright, K.K, C.V. Baxter, J. Li. 2005. Restricted hyporheic exchange in an alluvial river system: implications for stream ecology theory and watershed management. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24:447-460.
Mihuc, T. B., and G. W. Minshall. 2005. The trophic basis of reference and post-fire stream food webs 10 years after wildfire in Yellowstone National Park. Aquatic Sciences 67:541-548.
Snyder, E. B. and G. W. Minshall. 2005. An energy budget for the Kootenai River, Idaho (USA), with application for management of the Kootenai white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Aquatic Sciences 67:472-485.
Varricchione, J., S. A. Thomas, and G. W. Minshall. 2005. Vertical and seasonal distribution of hyporheic invertebrates in streams with different glacial histories. Aquatic Sciences 67:434-453.
Newbold, J.D., S.A. Thomas, G.W. Minshall, C.E. Cushing, and T. Georgian. 2005. Deposition, benthic residence, and resuspension of fine organic particles in a mountain stream. Limnology and Oceanography 50(5):1571-1580.
Robinson, C. T., U. Uehlinger, and G. W. Minshall. 2005. Functional characteristics of wilderness streams twenty years following wildfire. Western North American Naturalist 65:1-10.
Baxter, C.V., K.D. Fausch, M. Murakami and P.L. Chapman. 2004. Non-native stream fish invasion restructures stream and riparian forest food webs by interrupting reciprocal prey subsidies. Ecology 85: 2656-2663.
Karr, J. R., J. J. Rhodes, G. W. Minshall, F. R. Hauer, R. L. Beschta, C. A. Frissell, and D. A. Perry. 2004. The effects of postfire salvage logging on aquatic ecosystems in the American West. BioScience 54:1029-1033.
G. W. Minshall, T. V. Royer, and C. T. Robinson. 2004. Stream ecosystem responses to fire: the first ten years. Pages 165-188, in: L. L. Wallace (ed.) After the Fires: the ecology of change in Yellowstone National Park. Yale University Press, New Haven.