Medical Fields

Medicine, Dentistry, Podiatry, Optometry, Chiropracty, Pharmacy, Veterinary MedicinePhysician Assistant and Physical Therapy

AREA OF SPECIALIZATIONEMPLOYERSEDUCATION INFO
MEDICINE
Allergology
Cardiology
Dermatology
Emergency Medicine
Family and General Practice
Gastroenterology
Internal Medicine
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Orthopedics
Pathology
Pediatrics
Psychiatry
Radiology
Surgery
Research
Public Health
Clinics
Private or group practice
Health networks
Nursing homes
Rehabilitation Centers
Mental Health Institutions
Federal, State, & Local Health Depts
Government Agencies
Armed Services
Correctional facilities
College or Universities
Medical Schools
Large Corporations
Schooling Required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Medicine (MD) requires 4 years of medical school, followed by 3-8 years of internship and residency depending on specialization chosen.

Some physicians pursue the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. DO's emphasize the body's musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic patient care and often work in family and general practices, although they may be found in many specialties.
DENTISTRY
Endodontics
Oral Pathology
Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology
Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Pediatric Dentistry
Periodontics
Prosthodontics
Public Health
Research
Hospitals
Private Practice (80% of dentists)
Armed Services
Federal, State, and Local Health Depts.
Correctional Facilities
Private Companies
Health Networks
Test Required: MCAT
Test Required: DAT

School required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) requires 4 years of dental school (the last 2 years are clinical rotations)
PODIATRY
Surgery
Orthopedics
Primary Care
Sports Medicine
Pediatrics
Dermatology
Radiology
Geriatrics
Diabetic Foot Care
Private Practice
Community Health Clinics
Hospitals
Residential and Nursing Homes
National Health Service
Sports Clubs
Some specialty retail chains
Test Required: MCAT or GRE

Schooling Required: After earning at least 90 hours of undergraduate course work, the Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) requires 4 academic years (last 2 years are clinical rotations). One year of post-doctoral residency is required in most states.
OPTOMETRY
Family Practice
Pediatric Optometry
Geriatric Optometry
Vision Therapy
Contact Lenses
Hospital Based Optometry
Primary Care Optometry
Ocular Disease
Public Health
Research
Private Practice
Vision care centers
Hospitals
Physicians' offices
Armed Services
Government Organizations
Test Required: OAT

Schooling Required: After earning the undergraduate degree the Doctor of Optometry (OD) requires 4 academic years at an Optometry school.
CHIROPRACTIC MEDICINE
Sports Injuries
Neurology
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Nutrition
Internal Disorders
Diagnostic Imaging
Ergonomics
Solo and Group Practices
Hospitals or health clinics
TEST Required: GRE or MCAT

Schooling Required: After earning at least 90 hours of undergraduate course work, the Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) requires 4 academic years of a chiropractic school.
PHARMACY
Clinical Pharmacy
Intravenous Nutrition Support
Oncology
Nuclear Pharmacy
Geriatric Pharmacy
Psych pharmacotherapy
Research
Public Health
Hospitals
Nursing Homes
Mental Health Institutions
Health Clinics
Retail Chains
Government agencies including:
Food and Drug Administration
Public Health Service
Dept. of Veteran's Affairs
Armed Services
Pharmaceutical Companies
Health Insurance firms
Universities
Test Required: PCAT

Schooling Required: After spending 2 to 3 years in undergraduate coursework, the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D) requires 4 academic years.
VETERINARY MEDICINE
Small Animal Care
Large Animal Care
Food Safety
Preventative Medicine
Surgery
Laboratory Animal Medicine
Research
Group or private practice
Federal Government including:
Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. of Health & Human Services
State and Local government
Colleges of Veterinary Medicine
Medical Schools
Research laboratories
Animal food companies
Pharmaceutical companies
Zoos
Test Required: GRE, VCAT, or MCAT

Schooling Required: After earning an undergraduate degree, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM or VMD) requires 4 academic years at a college of Veterinarian medicine. Veterinarians who plan to specialize will spend additional years in internship or residency programs.
PHYSICIANS ASSISTANT
Hospitals
Medical Centers
Public Clinics
Prisons
Internal Medicine/physical exams
Pediatrics
Surgery Assistants
Pre and post-operative care
Rural Practice
Diagnosing and treating illness
Hospitals
HMO
Private Practice
Government Agency
Military
Test Required: GRE

Schooling: 2 years college in basic and behavioral sciences Most students have bachelors 3 years health care experience PA Programs are 27 months and include classroom & clinical rotations
PHYSICAL THERAPY
Acute care
Rehabilitation
Wellness/preventative /sports/fitness
Hospice
Government Programs:
VA
Indian Health
Dept. of Defense
Research
Hospitals
Private Practice
Out Patient Clinics
Home Health Agencies
Schools
Sports & Fitness Facilities
Industrial Work settings
Skilled Nursing Homes
Schools
In Patient Rehab
Test: GRE

Bachelor's Degree GPA 3.0 in last 560 hours Must have graduate degree and take national licensure exam

STRATEGIES FOR GAINING ADMITTANCE INTO PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS:

  • Choose an appropriate undergraduate major and include prerequisite courses required by the professional program, e.g. biology, chemistry, and physics, if they are not a requirement of the chosen major.
  • Meet with a pre-health advisor periodically to discuss curricular decisions.
  • Maintain a high grade point average, particularly in the sciences, to improve chances of admission to graduate or professional school
  • Develop strong computer, mathematics, and verbal and written communication skills.
  • Build strong relationships with professors and/or employers in order to secure strong recommendations.
  • Join related student organizations, such as Alpha Epsilon Delta, and assume leadership roles.
  • Obtain summer jobs, volunteer positions, or internships to test field of interest and gain valuable experience.
  • Develop a backup plan in case medical/graduate school admission is denied.
  • Look at entrance requirements for desired institutions. Be aware of any standardized test requirements, minimum grade point averages, and prerequisites.
  • Talk to professionals already in your desired field regarding their backgrounds, arrange a shadowing experience. Join professional associations and community organizations to stay abreast of current issues in the field and to develop networking contacts.
  • Read scientific journals related to your area of interest.
  • Research accredited institutions. Check graduation rates, success rates on licensing exams, cost location, etc. If possible, speak with current students.

GENERAL INFORMATION:

  • Develop a desire to help people of all backgrounds and ages including various races and socioeconomic groups.
  • Gain an understanding of the rigorous education and training required in the medical professions to ascertain your willingness to complete the required experiences.
  • Study the demands required of each of the medical fields. Many physicians work many long irregular hours. Consider your tolerance of such a schedule.
  • All fields require licensure that is generally regulated by the state of residency.
  • Plan for a lifetime of learning to stay abreast of new trends in the field to fulfill continuing educational requirements for licensure.
  • In some medical fields additional training is necessary for advanced research and administrative positions, university teaching and independent research.
  • Some medical fields offer the opportunity for post-doctoral experiences which can allow one to gain additional training or specialize in a particular area.

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